The Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità-ISS), located in Rome, is the main Italian Institute for technical-scientific research, control and advice in Public Health.It is under the authority of the Minister of Health and it has its own scientific autonomy and structure (6 Departments, 16 National Centres, 2 Reference Centres and 5 Technical-scientific services). Its role within the Italian health system is to promote Public Health through scientific research, surveys, and controls in different fields of health. The ISS collaborates with the Ministry of Health in planning and implementing Public Health programmes as well as providing scientific advice to the 19 Regional and 2 Autonomous Provinces Health Authorities in the field of Public Health. ISS is involved in many European and international projects and provides experts to international activities. In particular, the National Center for Global Health (GLOB) of ISS, involved in the AcToVax4NAM project, carries out research activities, both in economically developed and less developed countries, addressing the “how to apply” the knowledge of modern medicine and biology to the health of all people living on the national territory and in the world, with a general philosophy based on fight against health inequalities and on give particular attention to the most fragile and marginalized populations. The main areas of work are: a) health inequalities and social determinants; b) training in global health, public heealth and capacity building; c) migration and health; d) one-health; e) research on high global impact diseases; f) health systems, international cooperation and health.